Introduction to financial management

Financial management is managing money received or spent. Doing it well is essential to any community group's survival. Financial management has three basic parts to it:

  1. planning (on how to raise and spend money)
  2. record keeping
  3. reporting.

This section covers these three aspects of financial management and provides guidance and samples of financial documents for organisations using either a computer accounting package or a cash book accounting system (using either a manual or computer spreadsheet). In addition to financial management, the section also covers tax matters and details on the requirements for filing annual returns and financial statements.

Policies and procedures

In managing your organisation's finances, you should have some set policies and procedures that must be followed when it comes to looking after money. This will make it easier to keep track of the money that comes into the organisation and how it is spent.

Some areas to cover in your policies and procedures include:

Cash receipting:

  • writing receipts for cash received such as donations, membership fees, etc.
  • banking all money received (i.e. don't use it to pay for costs)
  • banking cash as soon as possible after it is received.

Making payments:

  • pay for all purchases and expenses (except for small, petty cash items) by cheque, direct credit, or Internet banking so there is a record of the transaction
  • have a system for approving payments - most banks and on-line accounting software systems include approval processes e.g. two signatories/authorising codes required
  • only pay a bill when an invoice has been received
  • have designated cheque signatories and two signatures on every cheque (or two authorising codes for internet banking)
  • have a system for filing invoices
  • have a petty cash system for small payments with procedures to balance and reimburse it.

Uses of financial information

Financial information can be used by management, workers, Inland Revenue, Charities Services, funding agencies and the general public. It is used to assess:

  • the organisation's financial position
  • the organisation's performance
  • that the finances are being used to meet the organisation's objectives
  • that results are cost-effective
  • all legal requirements are being met and
  • the extent to which planning for the future is being undertaken.

Key financial terms

Four key terms used in financial reports are:

  • assets - what the organisation owns or monies due to it e.g. cash, equipment, accounts receivable, inventory
  • liabilities - what the organisation owes e.g. bank overdraft, creditors, loans, staff leave not yet taken
  • expenses - the costs incurred by running your organisation e.g. wages, rent, phones
  • revenue or income - what your organisation earns e.g. grants, membership subs.

For more financial terms please see the glossary.

Acknowledgements

The main sources of information for this section were: Financial Training for Not-For-Profit Community Groups developed for the Auckland Council; training supplied to not-for-profit groups by the Community Accounts Mentoring Service (CAMS); Inland Revenue and Charities Services material.

PLEASE NOTE: the information in this section is not intended to take the place of legal advice. Laws can change regularly. The authors take no responsibility for the results of any action taken on the basis of information contained in this section or for any errors or omissions. Readers should talk to a lawyer or contact their local Community Law Centre (http://communitylaw.org.nz/our-law-centres/) for further legal advice.

Financial Management resources In the Community Resource Kit

  • Introduction to Financial Management
    • Policies and procedures
    • Key financial terms
    • Uses of financial information
    • Acknowledgements
  • Financial planning
    • Financial plan
      • Budget
      • Cash flow forecast
  • Financial record keeping
    • Treasurer's roles and responsibilities
      • Checklist of treasurer's overall duties
    • Financial records
      • Receipt book
      • Filing income invoices and paid accounts
      • Petty cash book
      • Petty cash checklist
      • Sample petty cash book
  • Computerised accounting systems
    • Checklist for a computerised accounting system
    • Chart of accounts
      • Sample chart of accounts
    • Opening balances
    • Names file
    • Processing transactions
    • GST processing
      • Sample GST invoice
    • Bank reconciliation
      • Sample monthly bank reconciliation
    • Cash book accounting system
      • Cash book checklist
      • Sample cash book
  • Financial reporting
    • Monthly reporting
      • Financial reports
      • Sample monthly financial report
      • Other reports
    • Keeping track of grants
      • Sample grants register
      • Sample schedule of expenditure against grants
    • Year-end financial statements
      • The year-end process
      • Year-end checklist
      • Annual financial accounts
      • Auditing
  • Annual returns and financial statements
    • Registered with Charities Services
    • Not registered with Charities Services
      • Incorporated societies
      • Charitable trusts
  • Tax matters
    • Checklist of tax responsibilities
    • Getting an IRD number
    • Income tax obligations
    • Exemptions from income tax
    • Resident withholding tax (RWT)
    • Employment-related tax obligations
      • Registering as an employer
      • Deductions
      • PAYE
      • Student loan and child support deductions
      • Fringe benefit tax (FBT)
      • KiwiSaver
      • Payroll Giving
    • Goods and services tax (GST)
      • Taxable activities
      • Who must register?
      • Registering for GST
      • GST obligations
      • Checklist of GST obligations
      • Completing your GST return
    • Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC)
      • ACC employers levy
      • ACC earners levy

 

Next page: Financial planning

Contents of the Community Resource Kit